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Universitas Scientiarum 20 3: This study describes the scapulocoracoid and the ventral gill arches of a rare benthic elasmobranch, Benthobatis kreffti, based on specimens collected at depth of m off the coast of Sao Paulo state, southern Brazil.
The scapulocoracoid has an anterior fontanelle that is placed laterally. Condyles are similar in size, unequally spaced, and they are not aligned horizontally. The mesocondyle is located below the other condyles.
The posterior fenestrae are allocated within the cartilage of the scapulocoracoid, while the anterior fenestrae cross its lateral-posterior segment.
The suprascapula is arched posteriorly, and it is not connected or fused to the synarcual or the vertebral column. Three unfused hypobranchial elements were found in the ventral gill arches. The ceratobranchials are rod-like shaped, with fenestrae from first to fourth ceratobranchials.
The fifth is morphologically distinct and connected to the scapulocoracoid. There is a pair of elements above the basibranchial copula, of unknown origin, also reported for other congeneric species, Benthobatis marcida. Such character could represent an autapomorphy of the genus.
El escapulacoracoides tiene una fontanela anterior posicionada lateralmente. En los arcos branquiales se encontraron tres elementos hipobranquiales no fusionados.
Nos arcos branquiais foram encontrados tres elementos hipobranquiais nao fusionados. Os ceratobranquiais possuem forma de bastao, com fenestras do primeiro ao quarto. The so-called blind electric rays, genus Benthobatis, are known by four deep sea species, and they share the remarkable feature of vestigial and non-functional eyes Carvalho b.
Any anatomical approach in the study of electric rays is important to elucidate the interrelationships among its representatives, as well as within the general batoid phylogeny, since there is a historical disagreement in the phylogenetic position of Torpediniformes, regarded as a basal lineage NishidaMcEachran et al. Elasmobranch skeletal analysis are a useful tool for taxonomy and systematics studies, remarkably those involving the neurocranium, gill arches, scapulocoracoid, pelvic girdle, clasper, and synarcual Hubbs et al.
Out of the five characteristics that support Torpediniformes as a group, three of them involve the skeleton Claeson However, for Benthobatis kreffti there are no descriptive data for the ventral gill arches and the scapulocoracoid, and the present study intends to complement the anatomical information of the species, through the analysis and comparison of these structures.
The analysis was based on 10 adult specimens of Benthobatis kreffti five mm to mm TL males; five mm to mm TL females caught at m deep bottom trawls during research cruise carried out by the Universidade Estadual Paulista UNESP along the Sao Paulo state coast, southern Brazil, between July 31 to August 2, After formalin fixation and alcohol preservation, the specimens had their skin, muscles and connective tissue removed by a dissection procedure, exposing the scapulocoracoid cartilage and gill arches, a stereomicroscope was employed for this process.
It is the skeletal structure that supports the pectoral fins through the articulation of the condyles with the pterygia. The propterygium PPG is tubular and rectilinear in shape, and extends to the level of suprascapula Figure 1.
The mesopterygium MSG is flat, rectangular in shape, and shorter than the others, while the metapterygium MTG is flat, branqiuales in shape, and widest in its anterior region Figure 1.
The scapulocoracoid has two bar-like structures, both are arched and have thin barnquiales delicate cartilage. The dorsal one, the suprascapula SSis posteriorly bowed Figure 2 and not connected or fused to the synarcual or the vertebral column Figure 1 ; the ventral one, the coracoid bar CB is anteriorly bowed. The anterior fontanelle AF is triangular and laterally positioned Figure 3.
The lateral-posterior segment is extensive and its posterior region has the condyles and fenestrae Figure 3.
Arcos Branquiales by David Guzmán on Prezi
The procondyle PRC is anteriorly directed, while the mesocondyle MSC is laterally directed and the metacondyle MTC is posteriorly directed, the first two are closest to each branquiaels and the metacondyle farther away Figure 3. The condyles are similar in size and are not aligned horizontally, the mesocondyle is positioned lower than the others Figure 3. The anterior dorsal and ventral fenestrae ADF and AVF, respectively pass through the lateral-posterior segment of the scapulocoracoid.
The posterior dorsal and ventral fenestrae PDF and PVF, respectively are located in a cavity within the cartilage of the posterior scapulocoracoid region Figure 3.
They are a set of skeletal elements that support the gills, with three unfused hypobranchial elements HB brsnquiales, the first of which is half arced in shape and the second and third are approximately triangular in shape Figure 4.
The pseudohyal has a rod-like shape and it is positioned ventrally to the first hypobranchial. The second arcox the third hypobranchials are close to an element of unknown origin that is found above the basibranchial copula indicated adcos the symbol “? Meanwhile, the ceratobranchial elements CB are rod-like in shape Figure 4. The species possesses fenestrae until the fourth ceratobranchial, and the fifth ceratobranchial is morphologically distinct.
The first three are near to its respective hypobranchial, while the fourth ceratobranchial is close to the middle-bottom portion of the basibranchial copula and it does not make contact with any hypobranchials.
The fifth ceratobranchial is located more posteriorly to the basibranchial adcos Figure 4and it articulates with the anterior region of the scapulocoracoid. The propterygium of electric rays is elongated and accommodates the bransuiales organ Claeson It extends to the level of the suprascapula in B. The mesopterygium in B. Carvalho b reported that Benthobatis moresbyi has a semi-circular scapulocoracoid arched anteriorly in dorsal view, similar to the anatomy observed here in B.
However, in other congeneric species, B. Concerning this feature in other narcinid genera and species Discopyge tschudii, Diplobatis picta and N. Branquiaes arrangement of the three condyles is an important feature of the scapulocoracoid of electric rays.
This non-horizontal configuration is found in Narkidae and Narcine brasiliensis McEachran et al.
The horizontal orientation of the condyles is considered apomorphic, and McEachran et al. Changes in the lateral face of the scapulocoracoid may be continuous, which may not be ideal for phylogenetic analysis of species; however in analyses involving arcls taxonomic levels, such as families and genera, this braqnuiales can be useful NishidaShiraiMcEachran et al. The same authors claim that the structure of the hypobranchial elements in electric rays is more varied than in other groups of rays.
Other genera from the order Torpediniformes have fused hypobranchials, e. There is some variation of the fourth ceratobranquial among the Torpediniformes. Benthobatis kreffti, Benthobatis marcida and Discopyge tschudii have this ceratobranquial articulating with the basibranchial copula. Benthobatis kreffti presents fenestrae in the first four ceratobranchials, as in Banquiales japonica Nishidawhile N. The fifth ceratobranchial is morphologically distinct from the others, and it articulates with brxnquiales anterior region of the scapulocoracoid in B.
The shape of the basibranchial copula of B. There is a pair of elements anterior to the basibranchial copula in B.
These structures may be an autapomorphy of the genus, though additional anatomical and embryological studies, including other species, are needed to confirm this hypothesis. The scapulocoracoid and gill arches are useful for taxonomic or systematic studies, as well as for Torpediniformes phylogenetic analysis.
Additional anatomical and embryological studies would be necessary to access more detailed features, in order to elucidate the origin of unknown element of Benthobatis, a virtually unknown deep sea elasmobranchs group. Florida, EUA, pp A systematic revision of the electric ray genus Narcine Henle, Chondrichthyes: Narcinidaeand the higherlevel phylogenetic relationships of the orders of elasmobranch fishes Chondrichthyes.
The City University of New York. Carvalho MR b A synopsis of the deep-sea genus Benthobatis Alcock, with a redescription of the type species Benthobatis moresbyi Alcock, Chondrichthyes, Torpediniformes, Narcinidae. Society France Ichthyology Bulletin of Marine Science 72 3: Claeson KM The impacts of comparative anatomy of electric ray Batoidea, Torpediniformes on their systematic hypotheses.
Journal of Morphology American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists 3: Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society Nishida K Phylogeny of suborder Myliobatidoidei.
Memoirs of the faculty of fisheries Hokkaido University 37 Narcinidae no sul do Brasil. Fundado Universidade do Rio Grande. Chondrichthyes, Torpediniformes, Narcinidaea new deep-water electric ray from off South Brazil and the third species of the genus. Archive of Fishery and Marine Research 49 1: Shirai S Interrelationships of Fishes. Services on Demand Article. English pdf Article in xml format Article references How to cite this article Automatic translation Send this article by e-mail.
Materials and Methods The analysis was based on 10 adult specimens of Benthobatis kreffti five mm to mm TL males; five mm to mm TL females caught at m deep bottom trawls during research cruise carried out by the Universidade Estadual Paulista UNESP along the Sao Paulo state coast, southern Brazil, between July 31 to August 2, Discussion The propterygium of electric rays is elongated and accommodates the electric organ Claeson Conclusion The scapulocoracoid and gill arches are useful for taxonomic or systematic studies, as well as for Torpediniformes phylogenetic analysis.
Conflicts of interest The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest. How to cite this article.