Muchas veces se confunden criminología y criminalística, pensando que las dos ciancias tratan de lo mismo. La verdad es que tienen mucho en común, pero. Criminalística y Criminología Universidad Hartmann on Facebook. Log In. Forgot account? College & University. Diferencia entre Criminología y Criminalística. diferencia entre criminologia y criminalistica pdf. Quote. Postby Just» Tue Aug 28, am. Looking for diferencia entre criminologia y criminalistica pdf.
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We have heard them mentioned again and again in series such as Lie To Me, being “protagonists” in the art of determining if a person is lying or not; We know they driminologia to do with the expressions of our face, but what are they really?
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How do they manifest? The microexpressions are involuntary movements of the muscles of the face, in especially emotional moments and that are related to a situation that can cause us anxiety; either for positive or negative reasons.
Currently, it has been determined that the seven basic emotions Happiness, anger, sadness, surprise, contempt, fear and disgust can not be “falsified”, because the muscles of the face move, in most cases, automatically, and there is no way we can reproduce those movements in a perfectly conscious way, even with a lot of practice.
Even professional actors, whose work is precisely in that falsification, could not be yy effective than those not initiated in the performing arts if they face a situation of imminent danger or deep emotional stress, because their reaction will be as primary as ours. The microexpressions are not called precisely because they are very small, but because their duration in the human face is incredibly short approximately one twentieth of a second.
At such speed, and combining it with conversation, body movements, manual gestures and lighting digerencia the elements that distractit is very possible to ignore them. That is why for a true study of those micromotions, it is necessary to film the subject in high definition, so that we have the possibility to see the recording again and again, if possible, frame by frame.
Since the combination of the movements of the individual muscles would be a titanic but impractical task, Ekman decided to group the muscles criminoligia “groups” or units of action, in such a way that their classification was easier. Of course, the phrase “easier” is a euphemism that falls short, because even with this simplified approach it is possible to count more than 10, different facial expressions.
Ekman carried out an investigation called “The Wizards Project magicians crimibologia, later called Project Diogenes. It was to determine what percentage diferemcia the population was able, in a natural way, to determine at a glance if a person is lying or not.
Facts like this have helped to feed the “myth” of mentalists who are able to read people’s minds, when in reality they are simply individuals with an excellent capacity for observation.
Practice makes a master. There is also an online tool called Micro Expression Training Tool METT which is a very simple flash application where we can learn about microexpressions and the different types of emotions, which muscles are involved in which manifestation and practices or “drills” to review our abilities.
Obviously, as we move with the tool, it becomes progressively more difficult; and on the other hand, the exercises that previously seemed impossible to us begin to be solved with great ease, since our brain is getting used to seeing precise areas of the face that are common to several emotions. The study of facial microexpressions has proved its worth in many different fields such as criminology, psychology, medicine and even 3D character animation. Hanging, according to Tardieu is defined as an act of violence in which the body taken by the neck in a tie tied to a fixed point and left to its own weight, exerts on the suspender loop a strong enough traction to produce abruptly the loss of knowledge, the arrest of vital functions and death.
The anoxemia by hanging is aided by its ease of handling, since it is easy to get a rope and a link where to hang it. For death to occur, it is enough that part of the subject is hung and not the whole person, some people have been found with knees on the floor or even semi-sitting.
This is achieved because only 2 kg is necessary to obliterate the jugular veins, 5 kg to obliterate the carotid arteries, 15 kg to obstruct the trachea and 25 kg to suppress the permeability of the vertebral arteries. There are hanging by suicide, accident, judicial execution, suicide is the most common, the accidental is given by children playing the “hanged”. The judicial is by judicial order or death penalty.
The crimes are often masked by resorting to “suspension” leaving the authority thinking that it is suicide.
Suspension is a term used only for corpses that are hanged, but died of something else. If he has not died from anoxemia, Tardieu’s spots are not found in the suspended.
When the knot is in the mouth cdiminalistica under the chin and the rope slides well, the occlusion of the vessels and airways occurs rapidly, leading to rapid death, producing a pale face. If crriminalistica knot is on one of the sides, it is seen in front of the ear, and the vessels on the opposite side are semipermeable, congestion occurs due to the suppression of the venous return, producing the cyanosed face.
When the knot is below the chin the head is back. When the knot is in the neck the head is forward. Symptomatology of the hanged: Three periods are considered. Heat sensation in the head. Intense pain in the neck. Contractions of the muscles of the face grimaces.
Uneven movements of upper and lower limbs: Final period due to anoxemia: He can be removed crimknologia with care he will come back to life crimiologia a few hours, but he will die from the effects of the shock or hypostatic pneumonia.
When it comes to the emission of urine and feces, it is impossible for him to live. Death is prevented by artificial respiration and if there is no damage to bodies or spinal cord. Pale face color, muscle tone and tongue position have little value.
The groove must be carefully studied: If the bond is cgiminalistica and thin, the groove will be deeper, well-limited edges and the marked permeation of the dermis.
It is considered a hard groove. If the material used is a belt, the groove will be soft. There are unique, double and rarely triple grooves, depending on the number of bends of the loop or the number of these.
The grooves below the larynx are rare. The grooves can be: Oblique from front to back and from bottom to top, leaving the highest part in the knot.
The bottom of the sulcus is pale and cyanosed by blood plasma. The lower edge less marked unlike the upper part of the groove, there are ecchymosis and blood disorders, there is tearing of the carotids, and blood may be spilled in the area. There is dislocation or fracture of cervical vertebrae. In thorax, there is pulmonary congestion, subpleural emphysema and bronchi full of mucus. The brain is congested or ischemic, according to the handles around the neck.
The diagnosis about the cause criminolotia give us data on whether the hanging is the cause of death, or if it is a suicide, a crime or an accident. Within the criminology there are technical applications of the work of different disciplines, auxiliary sciences and expert laboratories, among which are: To be able to determine the sex, size, age, ethnic group, and even reach the facial reconstruction of human remains.
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It usually includes the study and analysis of projectiles cfiminalistica impacts determining the caliber of the fired weapon. Through chemical study it can be determined if the hair criminoligia the study is about human or animal hair, as well as other characteristics. The participation of the photographer to make the photographic fixation of the scene and everything related to it is fundamental; however, it is only the first part of his work, since later he will have to go to the forensic photography laboratory to carry out the development of the material with which the opinions will be illustrated.
The study of biological material, such as saliva, semen, blood, hair, and other tissues, allows the typing of deoxyribonucleic acid DNAa modern identification method that, due to its great precision, has been called genetic fingerprinting. In this specialty the application of chemistry is essential if a stain that was found in the crimunalistica of the fact is blood and if it is animal or human; in the case of human blood, the groups, subgroups and the RH factor will be determined.
If it is considered that the laboratory is the place where scientific research works are carried out, either the necrocomium or the Forensic Medical Services can be estimated as the laboratories that the doctors use for the thorough study of the corpse, and to determine their identity and cause of death.
It is the branch of dentistry that deals with the management and proper examination of dental evidence and the assessment and presentation of dental findings, in the interest of justice.
It is the branch diferenciq Chemical Science that is in charge of the analysis, classification and determination of those elements or substances crimjnalistica were found in the place of the facts or that could be related to the commission of an illicit. Victimology as a discipline Mendelsohn was born of criminology, after the Second World War, in order to deal with the scientific study of the cirminalistica, in response to the fact that both law, criminology and even forensic psychology were had focused only on the offender or offender, paying little attention to the aggrieved party.
Classification and types of victims Landrove. His intervention does not trigger the criminal act; the relationship between the offender and the victim is irrelevant.
In turn, within this category are distinguished between accidental and indiscriminate victims. The former are replaced by chance in the path of criminals, as is the case, for example, of the client who is on a bench at the time of an armed robbery, or who suffers a violation derived from the reckless driving of an inebriated person.
The latter comprise an even broader sector than the previous one, since at no time supports any link with the culprit. The traditional example is the anti-terrorist, in which there are often no personal reasons crominologia the injured collateral damage. Participant Victims or Infungibles: This is the case in some cases of unpredictability entrr the victim when he does not close the access roads to the home, leaves a valuable object in the vehicle, walks into the night through a dangerous neighborhood, etc.
Likewise, there is talk of alternative victims, alluding to those who voluntarily stand in a position of being, depending on chance as a victim or victimizer as in a duel or fight. Finally, the greatest contribution occurs in the case of voluntary victims, who instigate the crime or freely agree euthanasia, homicide, suicide Abuse and sexual assault in the home mainly have the weakest members as the passive object: In crimes that harm or endanger certain assets whose ownership does not correspond to a natural person, but to a legal entity, the community or the state: In all these infractions, it is worth noting the depersonalization, collectivization and anonymity with respect to the relationships between offender and offender.
These circumstances include age, as it is often harder for children and the elderly to provide effective resistance. Also the physical or psychic state of the subject, due to the greater weakness caused by certain diseases and disabilities; race, which motivates the victimization of some minorities; and sex, being generally female the victim of certain crimes produced in the family environment, labor, etc.
Homosexuality is at the base of some infractions blackmail, physical aggression There are also social factors that provide this greater victimization: Thus the study of the victim from the Latin “defeated” for the forensic psychology, is particularly important as far as the “participant or triggering role” that corresponds to them.
Psychologists, as well as professionals in the field of forensics, authorities and even citizens, should be aware of the causal relationship that exists between the occurrence of difefencia crime and the contribution of the aggrieved in their victimization, for which and for the analysis of behavior criminal, it is essential the technical exercise of being able to determine what are the contributions of both the aggressor and the victim in the criminal act.
The word victim does not have a unique meaning, but is attributed different meanings according to the context in which it is used, so that sometimes it is synonymous with aggrieved or offended by crime, while in others it is presented in a more loose and considers any person natural and legal or number of these who suffer from natural or human causes.