With today’s release of the Letter to Pythocles, I have now completed these “ Elemental Editions” of each of Epicurus’ three letters from Diogenes Laertius, plus a. The Letter to Pythocles. CLEON brought me a letter from you in which you continue to express a kindly feeling towards me, which is a just return for my interest in. The Letter to Pythocles is a treatment of phenomena of the sky. It is possibly one of the few fully extant writings of Epicurus — the second of three.

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And their motions may be due to the rotation of the whole heaven, or the heaven may be at rest and they alone rotate according to some necessary impulse to rise, implanted at first when the world was made … and this through excessive heat, due to a certain extension of the fire which always encroaches upon that which is near it. In other works, he discards divination; and also in his Little Epitome.

On which lettet, the correct knowledge of pytocles fact that death is no concern of ours, makes the mortality of life pleasant to us, inasmuch as it sets forth no illimitable time, but relieves us for the longing for immortality.

University of Texas Press. In a word, experience drawn from our sense, teaches us that all these phenomena, and that one in particular, may be produced in many different manners. And even, though he should lose his eyes, he will still partake of life as he says in the same book. The circular shape which it assumes is due to the fact that the distance of every point is perceived by our sight to be equal; or it may be because, the atoms in the air or in the clouds and deriving from the sun having been thus united, the aggregate of them presents a sort of roundness.

Multiple Explanations in Epicurus’ Letter to Pythocles in: Epicurean Meteorology

On-line English translation pytnocles Epicurus’ summary of his explanations for celestial and meteorological phenomena. For neither the one explanation nor the other is in conflict with facts, and it is not easy to see in which cases the effect is due to one cause or to the other. They do not think that the wise man will ever be in love, nor that he will be anxious about his burial, nor that love is a passion inspired by the gods, as Diogenes says in his twelfth book.

The waning of the moon and again her waxing might be due to the rotation of the moon’s body, and equally well epicirus configurations which the air assumes; further, it may be due to the interposition of certain bodies. Still, under certain circumstances of life, he will forsake these rules and marry.


Multiple Explanations in Epicurus’ Letter to Pythocles

Snow may be produced by a light vapour full of moisture which the clouds allow to escape by passage intended for that end, when they are pressed, in a corresponding manner, by other clouds, and set in motion by the wind. He will take care of his property, and provide for the future. Rocco Pezzimenti – – Ler. But people in general, at times flee from death as the greatest of evils, and at times wish for it as a rest from the evils in life.

It may also be the case that this phenomena is produced by clouds of slight density as they become condensed. And, they say, he who enjoins a young man to live well, and an old man to die well, is a simpleton, not only because of the constantly delightful nature of life, but also because the care to live well is identical with the care to die well. For pythoclea folly as this would not possess the most ordinary being if ever so little enlightened, much less one who enjoys perfect felicity.

The forecasts which are drawn from certain animals arise from a fortuitous concourse of circumstances; for there pythoclee no necessary connection between certain animals and winter. Besides, all the difficulties on this subject will be easily explained if one attends to the clear evidence of the perceptions, as I have shown in my books about Nature. And there are other ways in which snow might be formed. History of Lettre Philosophy. Diskin Clay – – In David Armstrong ed.

This effect is most especially produced in the spring. Winds arise from time to time when foreign matter continually and gradually finds its way into the air; also through the gathering of great store of water. This explanation, moreover, is in accordance with the impressions of the senses. Thunder possibly arises from the movement of the winds revolving in the cavities of the clouds; of which we may see an image in vessels in our own daily use.

In this disposition of mind, man is happy even when his troubles engage him to quit life; and to die thus, is for him only to interrupt a life of happiness. Be careful then to seize on those precepts thoroughly, engrave them deeply in your memory, and meditate on them with the abridgment addressed to Herodotuswhich I also send you.

Epicurus in Ancient Greek and Roman Philosophy categorize this paper. Further, the moon may possibly shine by her own light, just as possibly she may derive her light from the sun; for in our own experience we see many things which shine by their own light and many also which shine by borrowed light.

Health is good for some people, but a matter of indifference to others. But if, abandoning hypothesis, one at the same time renounces the attempt to explain epucurus by means of analogies founded on appearances, then one is placing one’s self altogether at a distance from the science of nature, in order to fall into fables. This translation is by C. The heavenly phenomena do not inspire those who give different explanations of them, conformable with appearances, instead of explaining them by hypothesis, with any alarm.


Epicurus – Letter to Pythocles

The clouds may be formed either by the air condensed under the pressure of the winds, or by the agency of atoms set apart for the end, or by emanations from the earth and waters, or by other causes. Imprint all these precepts in your memory, O Pythoclesand so you will easily escape fables, and it will be easy for you to discover other truths analogous to these. Ice is formed by the expulsion from the water of the circular, epifurus the compression of the scalene and acute-angled atoms contained in it; further by the accretion of pyhocles atoms from without, which being driven together cause the water to solidify after the expulsion of a certain number of round atoms.

Added to PP index Total downloads 62of 2, Recent downloads 6 months 5of 2, How can I increase my downloads? For in the study of nature we must not conform to empty assumptions and arbitrary laws, but follow the promptings of the facts; for our life has no need now of unreason and false opinion; our one need is untroubled existence.

Know then, that the only aim of the knowledge of the heavenly phenomena, both those which are spoken of in contact with one another, and of those which have a spontaneous existence, is that freedom from anxiety, and that calmness which is derived from a firm belief; and this is the aim of every other science.

Letter to Pythocles

All these alternatives are possible: Sign in to use this feature. That the wise man will only feel gratitude to his friends, but to them equally whether they are present or absent.

For this is in conflict with facts. But if, on the contrary, a thing established by law is not pythoclws useful for social relations, then it is not just; and if that which was just, inasmuch as it was useful, loses this character, after having been for some time considered so, it is not less true that during that time it was really just, at least for those who do not perplex themselves about vain words, but who prefer in every case, examining and judging for themselves.

It is the conduct of ignorant astrologers covetous of a vain knowledge, who assigning imaginary causes to facts, wish to leave wholly to the Deity the care of the government of the universe.