Geography and Foreign Policy, I – Volume 32 Issue 1 – Nicholas J. Spykman. GEOGRAPHY AND FOREIGN POLICY, I NICHOLAS J. SPYKMAN. Yale University. “La politique de toutes les puissances est dans leur geographie,”‘ conceded. Nicholas John Spykman was an American political scientist who was one of the founders of the In his writings on geography and foreign policy, Spykman was somewhat of a geographical determinist. Since geography was “the most.

Author: Nekree Kagajas
Country: Ghana
Language: English (Spanish)
Genre: Spiritual
Published (Last): 6 May 2014
Pages: 310
PDF File Size: 9.41 Mb
ePub File Size: 18.60 Mb
ISBN: 920-2-17333-935-5
Downloads: 15318
Price: Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]
Uploader: Vudocage

Such views were expressed by An when the anti-Japanese and anti-German propaganda was at its heights in America and Washington was allied with the Soviets against the Tripartite Pact Williamson Spykman was opposed to European integration and argued that US interests favored balanced power in Europe, rather than integrated power.

He thus anticipated the end of the Soviet-Western alliance and the formation of a Western alliance against Moscow axed on the North-Atlantic. Since geography was “the most fundamentally conditioning factor because of its relative permanence,” it is of primary relevance in analyzing a state’s potential foreign policy. Examples of strategies implemented to overcome natural barriers and to exploit territorial potential were found by Spykman in ancient, medieval, and modern history, in European as well as in American or Egography history Spykman In other words, the Eurasian struggle was not the sea powers containing the Heartland but the prevention of any power from ruling the Rimland.

All of the examples that Spykman introduced in his and articles were taken from history, instead than from mere theories. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. The implications of the geographical and ecological settings for human aggressiveness and expansionism have been also geographhy by Bradley Thayer in his groundbreaking work on evolutionism and international relations Thayer Kind regards, Leonhardt, editor of ExploringGeopolitics. Spykman was born on 13 October in Amsterdam.

A Sterling Professor of International Sptkman, teaching as part of the Institute for International Studies at Yale Universityone of his prime concerns was making his students geographically literate, as geopolitics was impossible without geographic understanding.

Presciently, Spykman also foresaw the irresistible rise of the Pacific Ocean as a key route for world trade. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Mahan Sumida Spykman sees that its importance to be the reason that the Rimland will be crucial to containing the Heartland, but Mackinder had believed foreivn the Outer or Insular Crescent would be the most important factor in containing the Heartland.


The Geogdaphy was fighting a war against Germany to prevent Europe’s conquest, and it would not make sense to federalize or to unify Europe after a war that had been fought to preserve balance.

Nicholas J. Spykman

Nicholas John Spykman pronounced “Speak-man”, 13 October — 26 June was an American political scientist who was one of the founders of the classial realist school in American foreign policy, transmitting Eastern European political thought to the United States. There are two offshore continents flanking Eurasia: The importance of such an insightful consideration could be hardly overstated.

In his writings on geography and foreign policy, Spykman was somewhat of a geographical determinist. April Learn how and when to remove this template message. He clarified Spykman Spykman states that historically, battles have pitted either Britain and Rimland allies against Russia and its Rimland allies or Britain and Russia together against a dominating Rimland power.

Again, Polict differs from Mackinder, who sees Eurasian wars as historically pitting the Heartland against the sea powers for control of the rimland, establishing a land power-sea power opposition. Share on Facebook Share.

He also forecast the rise of China, becoming the dominant power in Asia and that the US would thus take responsibility for Japan’s defense. In the late s, German geopolitical spy,man was flourishing, especially because of the Munich School and its widely read journal Die Zeitschrift fuer Geopolitik.

Spykman’s conception of the Rimland bears greater resemblance to Alfred Thayer Mahan ‘s “debated and debatable zone” than to Mackinder’s Inner or Marginal Crescent. The Geography of the Peace was published the year after Spykman’s death.

While the USSR encompassed a great expanse of land, foreignn arable land remained in a small portion of its territory, mostly in the West.

Concerned with the balance of powerhe argued that isolationismwhich relied on the oceans to protect the United States ” hemispheric ” or “quarter defense”was bound to fail. John Foster Dulles and the founders of the containment strategy would borrow heavily from Spykman, as well as Geographg, when forging the American Cold War strategy.

He was married to the children’s novelist E. Maritime mobility opened up the possibility of a new geopolitical structure: Views Read Edit View history. The Rimland has great importance because geogarphy its demographic weight, natural resources, and industrial development.


As such, it will not be in a position to compete with US sea power. Since the Industrial Revolution, however, strength has become more and more identified with industrial strength. American people of Dutch descent Geopoliticians Guggenheim Fellows Military geographers Political realists births deaths Dutch poolicy Dutch diplomats University of California alumni University of California faculty Yale University faculty.

Retrieved from ” https: The Politics of Writing Global Space. Raw material resources and industrial organization have therefore become the prerequisites of power whether by land or by sea. Sharing a characteristic that is proper of all serious geopolitical analysts, Spykman founded his method in history, and most importantly, in long-run history.

Nicholas J. Spykman – Wikipedia

Therefore, British, Russian, and US power would play the spykmqn roles in controlling the European litoral and there the spykmam power relations of the world. In the industrial-technological era spykjan the Cold War, the two superpowers were very large states: The Rimland’s defining characteristic is that it is an intermediate region, lying between the Heartland and the marginal sea powers. He was convinced that, once Germany and Japan had been defeated, they should had both been included into an anti-Soviet alliance, due to the fact that Moscow would be left in a too favourable position in Eurasia.

Inhe came to Yale Universitywhere he was an assistant professor of international relations. Spykman’s work is based on assumptions similar to Mackinder, the unity of world politics and the unity of the world sea, but extends it to include the unity of the air. However, his contribution to geopolitical geographj has certainly not been limited to that.

Every government official responsible for policy should read it once a year for the next twenty years—even if he may not agree with some of the remedies proposed.

On one hand, leading scholars in strategic studies, such as Colin S. Share on Twitter Tweet. Owen and Francis Sempa in the U. Spykman sees both continents’ geopolitical status as determined respectively by the state of control over the Mediterranean Sea and the “Asiatic Mediterranean.