Comparative hemorheology, in Handbook of Hemorheology and Hemodynamics, eds. O. K. Baskurt, M. R. Hardeman, M. W. Rampling, and. Article · January. Handbook of Hemorheology and Hemodynamics – Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online. significantly contribute to hemorheological variations in diseases and in certain extreme physiological properties. KEYWORDS: Hemorheology, hemodynamics, viscosity, erythrocyte deformability, Handbook of Engineering. New York.

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Blood viscosity expressed as apparent viscosity i.

The linkage between the in vitro and in vivo research described in the book will be of interest to both basic science and clinical investigators. There has been a significant change in our understanding of the factors that determine the degree of RBC aggregation: In this chapter, we initially consider the rheological behavior of blood under conditions where the blood is treated as a homogenous fluid and thus where the formed elements e. Moreover, the neonate is at high risk to acquire disorders with strong impact on blood circulation e.

The elastic energy is measurable when flow changes with time. Conversely, RBC agglutination and blood coagulation are irreversible processes due to either protein polymerization or strong antigen-antibody attractive forces. Selected pages Title Page.

The general fluid mechanical procedure used to predict how a fluid flows in response to forces involves three steps: Red Blood Cell Aggregation. Handbook of Hemorheology and Hemodynamics Oguz K. Abnormal increases of RBC aggregation have been observed in several diseases associated with vascular disorders e.

For red blood cells RBC to survive in the harsh hemodynamic environment of the circulation in vivo, they must remain non-adhesive and maintain a set of unique stability. RBC properties therefore influence both cell deformability and aggregation.

Even moderate hemolysis, which is not an immediate threat to renal function, is an important warning sign of other potential blood cell damage such as platelet activation, white blood cell WBC dysfunction, and other serious complications such as scavenging of nitric handbkok [1], damage to andd and endothelial cells, and impairment of the vascular smooth muscle tone [2].

The significance of this relationship cannot be understated in light of the fact that control and regulation of microvascular blood flow is manifest by the ability of the vascular system to alter resistance in response to vasomotor adjustments.

Ebook: Handbook of Hemorheology and Hemodynamics

The circulatory system consists of a pump the heart and an extensive, highly branching system of tubes blood vessels containing a fluid hemorheoloty with specialized capabilities for the transport of oxygen, nutrients, many other substances and heat. Hwndbook is, the hemorheological profile of an animal species is a conglomerate of properties which has to be considered in evaluating its cardiovascular relevance in a species-specific manner.


This latter sublethal RBC mechanical damage causes a shortening of RBC life span, a decrease in density of functioning capillaries and area of contact surface of RBC with capillary walls, and may lead to anemia, tissue hypoxia and other complications. The differences hemodynamiccs apparent viscosity values measured in vivo and ex vivo were more prominent at higher hematocrit values [1]. The circulation continues to show marked changes with growth and further organ differentiation during infancy and childhood.

The general fluid mechanical procedure used to predict how a fluid flows in response to forces involves three steps:. In the case of leukocytes, attachment is followed by migration through the endothelium, while platelets undergo spreading and an aggregation phase, and act as a surface for coagulation and fibrin deposition.

Thus, enhanced RBC aggregation may not always be related to plasma composition changes, but can co-exist with plasma viscosity heodynamics.

Sections of the Handbook include History of Hemorheology; Hemorheology, covering basic aspects, blood composition, blood rheology, cell mechanics, pathophysiology, methods and comparative studies; Hemodynamics, covering basic principles, microcirculation, in vivo effects, endothelium and methods; and Clinical Aspects of Hemorheology, covering hyperviscosity, clinical significance and treatment.

This approach is then modified in order to consider flows where the blood cell characteristic dimensions approach those of the geometries in which the flow takes place. Also, in the s and s a number of books were published that focused on clinical aspects of blood rheology [2—5]. Hemorheology and hemodynamics are closely related, the former dealing with all aspects of the flow and interactions of pf individual blood cells mostly studied in vitro, the latter with the in vivo relationships among vessel architecture, driving pressure, flow rate and shear stress.

IOS Press Ebooks – Handbook of Hemorheology and Hemodynamics

Although damage to platelets and WBC is an extremely important topic, this chapter concentrates on the mechanical trauma to RBC and related changes in rheological properties of whole blood. The development of the fetus, the transition and adaptation at birth, and the subsequent maturation during infancy and childhood require considerable adaptation processes of the macro- and microcirculation.

These flow properties are the concern of the hemorheologist and they are dependent on the composition of the blood and the properties of its constituents; hence, knowledge of them is vital to any understanding of hemorheology.

Using his home-made microscopes he handbookk noticed the phenomenon of reversible red cell aggregation in relation to slow and stagnant in vivo blood flow [2]. There is also discussion of the normal changes in blood composition that take place as the fetus develops through to the neonatal period.


In order to quantitatively understand the conditions of blood flow through various in vitro and in vivo geometries, the flow properties of blood must be experimentally determined. Unfortunately, in many cases these devices cause dangerous complications triggered by non-physiological factors within the blood flow. This publication primarily focuses on the macro- and micro- rheological behavior of blood and its formed elements, on interactions between the formed elements and blood vessel walls, and on the off aspects of hemodynamics.

While the resistance to flow spans nearly five decades as blood courses its way from arteriole to venule, the large scatter in the experimental data may reflect significant departures from the flow of a Newtonian fluid through a smooth walled tube of circular cross-section.

The factors that determine the rheological behavior of blood, a two-phase handboook, include the relative volume of each phase as reflected by the hematocrit value, plasma composition and the properties of cellular elements. Contact North America Europe Asia. Here we review the theoretical and experimental analyses of leukocyte deformation, and the structural elements that influence the cellular rheology. Relations describing fluid flow in cylindrical tubes were formulated by Poiseuille approximately years ago, resulting in the well-known Poiseuille Equation.

In a classification published by P. The effects of irregularities in geometry, broad variations in microvessel hematocrit and shear rates, blood cell deformability, red cell aggregation and blood cell adhesion to the endothelium are reviewed in the following. In the bridging model, red cell aggregation is proposed to occur when the bridging forces due to the adsorption of macromolecules onto adjacent cell surfaces exceed disaggregating forces due to electrostatic repulsion, membrane strain and mechanical shearing [15, ].


Activation at the vessel wall is a necessary part of their physiological migratory response, but if it occurs inappropriately, circulating cells have the potential to cause pathogenic microvascular occlusion [9]. Meiselman hematocrit hemodilution hemodynamics hemoglobin hemolysis Hemorheol hemorheological parameters human hyperviscosity impaired increased interactions ischemia ischemic layer leukocytes levels Linderkamp low shear measured mechanical properties Microcirc microcirculation microcirculatory microvascular microvessels mPa.

While intended to be beneficial, infusion of stored RBC can impact blood rheology in both large vessels and the levels, but additional factors related to storage are also involved.