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Nutrition is the science that interprets the interaction of nutrients and other substances in food in relation to maintenance, growth, reproduction, health and disease of an organism. It includes food intake, absorptionassimilationbiosynthesiscatabolismand excretion.
The diet of an organism is what it eats, which is largely determined by the availability and palatability of foods. For humans, a healthy diet includes preparation of food and storage methods that preserve nutrients from oxidation, heat or leaching, and that reduce risk of foodborne illnesses. In humans, an unhealthy diet can cause deficiency-related diseases such as blindnessanemiascurvypreterm birthstillbirth and cretinism or nutrient excess health-threatening conditions such as obesity   and metabolic syndrome ;  and such common chronic systemic diseases as cardiovascular diseasetrkfologia diabetes  and osteoporosis.
The first recorded dietary advice, carved into a Babylonian stone tablet in about BC, cautioned those with pain inside to avoid eating onions for three days. Scurvylater found to be a vitamin C trofollogiawas first described in BC in trofologis Ebers Papyrus.
According to Walter Gratzerthe study of nutrition probably began during the 6th century BC. In China, the concept of qi developed, a spirit or “wind” similar to what Western Europeans later called pneuma.
The first recorded nutritional experiment with human subjects is found in tgofologia Bible’s Book of Daniel. Daniel and his friends were captured by the king of Babylon during an invasion of Israel. Selected as court servants, they were to share in the king’s fine foods and wine.
But they objected, preferring vegetables pulses and water in accordance with their Jewish dietary restrictions. The king’s chief steward reluctantly agreed to a trial.
Daniel and his friends received their diet for ten days and were then compared to the mznual men. Appearing healthier, they were allowed to continue with their diet. Around BC, Anaxagoras stated that food is absorbed by the human body and, therefore, contains “homeomerics” generative componentssuggesting the existence of nutrients.
Saltpepper and other spices were prescribed for various ailments in various preparations for example mixed with vinegar. In the 2nd century BC, Cato the Elder believed that cabbage or the urine of cabbage-eaters could cure digestive diseases, ulcers, warts, and intoxication.
Living about the turn of the millennium, Aulus Celsusan ancient Roman doctor, trofolofia in “strong” and “weak” foods bread for example was strong, as were older animals and manaul. One mustn’t overlook the doctrines of Galen: In use from his life in the 1st century AD until the 17th century, it was heresy to disagree with him for years. Four elements earth, air, manyal and water combine into “complexion”, which combines into states the four temperaments: The states are made up of pairs of attributes hot and moist, cold and moist, hot and dry, and cold and drywhich are made of trofoogia humours: Galen thought that for a person to have goutkidney stonesor arthritis was scandalous, which Gratzer likens to Samuel Butler’s Erehwon where sickness is a crime.
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In the s, Paracelsus was probably the first to criticize Galen publicly. Leonardo did not publish his works on this subject, but he was maanual afraid of thinking for himself and he definitely disagreed with Galen. Jan Baptist van Helmontwho discovered several gases such as carbon dioxideperformed the first quantitative experiment.
Robert Boyle advanced chemistry. Sanctorius measured body weight. Physician Herman Boerhaave modeled the digestive process. Physiologist Albrecht von Haller worked out the difference between nerves and muscles. Sometimes forgotten during his life, James Linda physician in the British navy, performed the first scientific nutrition experiment in Lind discovered that lime juice saved hrofologia that had been at sea for years from scurvya deadly and painful bleeding disorder.
Between andan estimated two million sailors had died of scurvy. AroundAntoine Lavoisier discovered the details of metabolism, demonstrating that the oxidation of food is the source of body heat. Called the most fundamental chemical discovery of the 18th century,  Lavoisier discovered the principle of conservation of mass. His ideas made the phlogiston theory of combustion obsolete.
InGeorge Fordyce recognized calcium as necessary for the survival of fowl. In the early 19th century, the elements carbonnitrogenhydrogenand oxygen were recognized as the primary components of food, and methods to measure their proportions were developed. In the early s, Kanehiro Takaki observed that Japanese sailors whose diets consisted almost entirely of white rice developed beriberi or endemic neuritis, a disease causing heart problems and paralysisbut British sailors and Japanese naval officers did not.
Adding various types of vegetables and meats to the diets of Japanese sailors prevented the disease, not because of the increased protein as Takaki supposed but because it introduced a few parts per million of thiamine to the diet, later understood as a cure .
InEugen Baumann observed iodine in thyroid glands. InChristiaan Eijkman worked with natives of Javawho also suffered from beriberi. Trofopogia observed that chickens fed the native diet of white rice developed the symptoms of beriberi but remained healthy when fed unprocessed brown rice trofologua the outer bran intact. His assistant, Gerrit Grijns correctly identified and described the anti-beriberi substance in rice.
Eijkman cured the natives by feeding them brown rice, discovering that food can cure disease. Over two decades later, nutritionists learned that the outer rice bran contains vitamin B1, also known as thiamine.
In the early 20th century, Carl von Voit and Max Rubner independently measured caloric energy expenditure in different species of animals, applying principles of physics in nutrition. InEdith G. Willcock and Frederick Hopkins showed that the amino acid tryptophan aids the well-being of mice but it did not assure their growth.
Babcock and Edwin B. Hart started the cow feeding, single-grain experimentwhich took nearly four years to complete.
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InCasimir Funk coined the term vitamin manusl, a vital factor in the diet, from the words “vital” and “amine,” because these unknown substances preventing scurvy, beriberi, and pellagrawere thought then to be derived from ammonia. The vitamins were studied in the first half of the 20th century. InElmer McCollum and Marguerite Davis discovered the first vitamin, fat-soluble vitamin Athen water-soluble vitamin B in ; now known to be a complex of several water-soluble vitamins and named vitamin C as the then-unknown substance preventing scurvy.
InSir Edward Mellanby incorrectly identified rickets as a vitamin A deficiency because he could cure it in dogs with cod liver oil. Bishop mabual vitamin E as essential for rat pregnancy, originally calling it “food factor X” until InHart discovered that trace amounts of copper are necessary for iron absorption. Inhe synthesized it, and inhe won a Nobel Prize for his efforts.
In the s, William Cumming Rose identified essential amino acidsnecessary protein components that the body cannot synthesize. InUnderwood and Marston independently discovered the necessity of cobalt. InEugene Floyd DuBois showed that work and school performance are related to caloric intake.
InErhard Fernholz discovered the chemical structure of vitamin E and then he tragically disappeared. Inrationing in the United Kingdom during and after World War II took place according to nutritional principles drawn up by Elsie Widdowson and others. InThe U. Department of Agriculture introduced the Food Guide Pyramid. The list of nutrients that people are known to require is, in the words of Marion Nestle”almost certainly incomplete”. Some nutrients can be stored – the fat-soluble vitamins – while others are required more or less continuously.
Poor health can be caused by a lack of required nutrients, or for some vitamins and minerals, too much of a required nutrient. The macronutrients are carbohydratesfiberfatsproteinand water.
Some of the structural material can be used to generate energy internally, and in either case it is measured in Joules or kilocalories often called “Calories” and written with a capital C to distinguish them from little ‘c’ calories. Vitamins, minerals, fiber, and water do not provide energy, but are required for other reasons. Molecules of carbohydrates and fats consist of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms.
Carbohydrates range from simple monosaccharides glucose, fructose and galactose to complex polysaccharides starch. Fats are triglyceridesmade of assorted fatty acid monomers bound to a glycerol backbone. Some fatty acids, but not all, are essential in the diet: D molecules contain nitrogen atoms in addition to carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen.
The fundamental components of protein are nitrogen-containing amino acidssome of which are essential in the sense that humans cannot make them internally.
Some of mqnual amino acids are convertible with the expenditure of energy to glucose and can be used for energy production, just as ordinary glucose, in a process known as mahual.
By breaking down existing protein, the carbon skeleton of the various amino acids can be metabolized to intermediates in cellular respiration; the remaining ammonia is discarded primarily as urea in urine.
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Carbohydrates may be classified as monosaccharides trofologis, disaccharidesor polysaccharides depending on the number of monomer sugar units they contain. They constitute a large part of foods such as ricenoodlesbreadand other grain -based products, also potatoesyams, beans, fruits, fruit juices and vegetables. Monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides contain one, two, and three or more sugar units, respectively.
Polysaccharides are often referred to as complex carbohydrates because they are typically long, multiple branched chains of sugar units. Traditionally, simple carbohydrates are believed to be absorbed quickly, and therefore to raise blood-glucose levels more rapidly than complex carbohydrates.
This, however, is not accurate. Dietary fiber is a carbohydrate that is incompletely absorbed in humans and in some animals. Like all carbohydrates, when it is metabolized it can produce four Calories kilocalories of energy per gram. However, in most circumstances it accounts for less than that because of its limited absorption and digestibility. Dietary fiber consists mainly of cellulose, a large carbohydrate polymer which is indigestible as humans do not have the required enzymes to disassemble it.
There are two subcategories: Whole grains, fruits especially plumsprunesand figsand vegetables are good sources of dietary fiber. There are many health benefits of a high-fiber diet. Dietary fiber helps reduce the chance of gastrointestinal problems such as constipation and diarrhea by increasing the weight and size of stool and softening it.
Insoluble fiber, found in whole wheat flournuts and vegetables, especially stimulates peristalsis — the rhythmic muscular contractions of the intestines, which move digest along the digestive tract.
Soluble fiber, found in oats, peas, beans, and many fruits, dissolves in water in the intestinal tract to produce a gel that slows the movement of food through the intestines. This may help kanual blood glucose levels because it can slow the absorption of sugar.
Additionally, fiber, perhaps especially that from whole grains, is thought to possibly help lessen insulin spikes, trofokogia therefore reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes.